Pneumoconiosis is any lung disease caused by dust particles that can damage the lungs. The type of disease varies according to the kind of dust inhaled, although symptoms are usually similar regardless of the cause.

Types of dust that may cause pneumoconiosis include: ● coal dust from drilling into rock when mining ● asbestos fibers, often from insulation or roofing ● cotton dust, usually from textile manufacturing ● silica, often from sand and rock at a foundry ● beryllium, a lightweight metal used in electronics and aerospace industries ● aluminum oxide, cobalt, and talc.

Different forms of the disease include coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), also known as black lung disease, and byssinosis, also known as brown lung disease, caused by cotton fibers. Pneumoconiosis caused by asbestos is called asbestosis.


Pneumoconiosis can take a long time to develop, as dust can build up slowly or take many years to cause a reaction in the lungs. A person with pneumoconiosis may no longer work in an environment with dust that has caused the disease.

The key symptoms of pneumoconiosis are: ● difficulty breathing, or shortness of breath ● a cough, which may produce phlegm ● tightness in the chest. ● These symptoms can be similar to those of a cold or chest infection.

Risk factors

There are clear risk factors for pneumoconiosis and a range of jobs that are more likely to bring people into contact with harmful dust.

Some examples of occupations that may bring workers into contact with dust particles that cause pneumoconiosis include: ● plumbers, roofers, and builders who work with asbestos ● coal miners ● textile workers.

Working with dust particles does not mean that a person will develop pneumoconiosis. Many steps can be taken to protect workers.


Many employers offer a routine check for lung diseases, such as a chest X-ray or breathing test, if employees are exposed to harmful dust in the workplace.

A chest X-ray or CT scan can reveal inflammation, excess fluid, or scarring in the lungs. A test may also be done to check how much oxygen is reaching the blood from the lungs. Sometimes a biopsy may be needed to rule out other diseases.


Treatment depends on the type and severity of the pneumonia. Bacterial types of pneumonia are usually treated with antibiotics. ● Viral types of pneumonia are usually treated with rest and plenty of fluids. Antiviral medications can be used in influenza. ● Fungal types of pneumonia are usually treated with antifungal medications.

In addition, it is crucial to rest and drink plenty of fluids. In the hospital, patients are generally treated with intravenous antibiotics and fluids. They may need a supplemental oxygen supply.


There are two different vaccines to prevent pneumococcal disease, the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia. ● pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, or Prevnar ● pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, or Pneumovax.

Prevnar (PCV13) is normally included as part of an infant's routine immunizations.

It is recommended for children under 2 years, adults over 65 years, and those between the ages of 2 and 64 years with certain medical conditions.

Pneumovax (PPSV23) is recommended for children and adults who are at increased risk of developing pneumococcal infections.

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetes can harm your nerves. That damage, called neuropathy, may be painful. It can happen in several ways, and they all seem to be related to blood sugar levels being too high for too long. To prevent it, work with your doctor to manage your blood sugar. You may hear your doctor mention the four types of diabetes-related neuropathy: peripheral, autonomic, proximal, and focal.

Peripheral Neuropathy

This type usually affects the feet and legs. Rare cases affect the arms, abdomen, and back.

Symptoms include:

  • Tingling
  • Numbness (which may become permanent)
  • Burning (especially in the evening)
  • Pain

Early symptoms usually get better when your blood sugar is under control. There are medications to help manage the discomfort.

What you should do:

  • Check your feet and legs daily.
  • Use lotion on your feet if they're dry.
  • Take care of your toenails. Ask your doctor if you should go to a podiatrist.
  • Wear shoes that fit well. Wear them all the time, so your feet don't get injured.

 Autonomic Neuropathy

This type usually affects the digestive system, especially the stomach. It can also affect the blood vessels, urinary system, and sex organs.

In your digestive system:

Symptoms include:

  • Bloating
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Heartburn
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Feeling full after small meals

What you should do: You may need to eat smaller meals and take medication to treat it.

Symptoms include: 

  • Blacking out when you stand up quickly
  • Faster heartbeat
  • Dizziness
  • Low blood pressure
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Feeling full sooner than normal

If you have it: Avoid standing up too quickly. You may also need to wear special stockings (ask your doctor about them) and take medicine.

In Men:

Symptoms include: He may not be able to have or keep an erection, or he may have “dry” or reduced ejaculations. 

What you should do: See your doctor, because there are other possible causes than diabetes. Treatment includes:

  • Counseling
  • Penile implant or injections
  • Vacuum erection device
  • Medication

In Women

Symptoms include: Can include less vaginal lubrication and fewer or no orgasms.

What you should do: See your doctor. Treatments include:

  • Vaginal estrogen creams, suppositories, and rings
  • Medications to help sex not feel painful
  • Lubricants

In the Urinary System:

Symptoms include:

  • Trouble emptying your bladder
  • Bloating
  • Incontinence (leaking urine)
  • More bathroom trips at night

What you should do: Tell your doctor. Treatments may include:

  • Medication
  • Inserting a catheter into the bladder to release urine (self-catheterization)
  • Surgery



Gastroparesis, also called “paralyzed stomach” is a serious condition manifested by delayed emptying of stomach contents into the small intestine after a meal. Young and middle-aged women are at the highest risk for developing idiopathic gastroparesis.


The common symptoms are-

  • Chronic nausea
  • Vomiting (especially of undigested food)
  • Abdominal pain
  • Feeling of fullness after just a few bites
  • Lack of appetite
  • Gastroesophageal reflux
  • Spasms of the stomach wall
  • Weight loss and malnutrition


Most people diagnosed with gastroparesis have idiopathic gastroparesis. The primary cause of gastroparesis is damage to or dysfunction of peripheral nerves and muscles. Other factors include:

  • Vagus nerve damage
  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • Certain medications i.e. tricyclic antidepressants, calcium channel blockers, clonidine, dopamine agonists, lithium, nicotine, and progesterone
  • Conditions such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyloidosis, and scleroderma
  • Viral infection
  • Radiation therapy or chemotherapy
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Abdominal or esophageal surgery
  • Scleroderma (a connective tissue disease)


  • Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • CT scan, MRI, and ultrasound
  • Upper GI seriesor barium X-ray
  • Gastric emptying study
  • Electrogastrography
  • Wireless capsule test
  • Scintigraphic gastric accommodation
  • Small intestine X-ray


1. Dietary changes

      Eat smaller meals more frequently

  • Chew food thoroughly
  • Avoid fibrous fruits & vegetables, fatty foods and carbonated drinks
  • Drink water throughout each meal

2. Medications

  • To stimulate the stomach muscles- Metoclopramide, erythromycin, Domperidone.
  • To control nausea and vomiting- Prochlorperazine,thiethylperazine,ondansetronand diphenhydramine.

3. Surgery

  Dhaka -

Monday 19 Feb 2018

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